Monday, 16 March 2020

General Cornwallis

William Harvey, Clarenceux King-of-Arms, in his heraldic visitation of the county of Suffolk, made in 1561, states that

THOMAS CORNWALLEYS, of London, merchant, the first of the family mentioned in the visitation, was a younger brother, and born in Ireland, and that he bore the same arms which the house, at the time of the visitation, used.

This Thomas was Sheriff of London in 1378.

He died in 1384, and was succeeded by his son,

JOHN CORNWALLIS, who added to his patrimony the lordships of Brome and Oakley, with other lands in Suffolk, by intermarrying with Philippa, daughter and one of the heirs of Robert Bucton.

This John represented Suffolk in Parliament in the reign of RICHARD II.

He died in 1446, and was succeeded by his son,

THOMAS CORNWALLIS, MP for Suffolk in the reign of HENRY VI.

The three elder sons of this Thomas having successfully inherited the estate of Brome, and all dying without issue, the youngest son eventually succeeded as

SIR WILLIAM CORNWALLIS KB, of Brome, who married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of John Stanford.

He died in 1519, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

SIR JOHN CORNWALLIS, Steward of the Household to the Prince Edward, son of HENRY VIII.

He died in 1544, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

THE RT HON SIR THOMAS CORNWALLIS (1519-1604), a gentleman who displayed great personal courage against the Norfolk rebels under Kett, the tanner, in 1549, and he subsequently served the office of Sheriff for Norfolk and Suffolk.

He was also instrumental in the suppression of Wyatt's insurrection, and was commissioned, with the Earl of Sussex and Sir Edward Hastings, for the trial of Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger in 1554.

At this time he was sworn of the Privy Council, and constituted Treasurer of Calais.

Sir Thomas Cornwallis,  Photo Credit: the National Trust

Sir Thomas represented Suffolk in Parliament between 1547 and 1558.

Upon the accession of ELIZABETH I, being a Roman Catholic, he was left out of the Privy Council, and removed from the comptrollership of the Household, which he held under QUEEN MARY.

He then retired into the country, and built BROME HALL.

Sir Thomas Cornwallis wedded Anne, daughter of Sir John Jerningham, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his heir;
Charles (Sir);
Mary; Elizabeth.
He was succeeded by his elder son,

SIR WILLIAM CORNWALLIS (c1549-1611), of Brome Hall, who espoused firstly, Lucy, eldest daughter and co-heir of John Neville, 4th Baron Latymer, and had issue,
THOMAS, his heir;
Frances; Elizabeth; Cornelia; Anne.
He married secondly, Jane, daughter of Hercules Meautys, and by that lady had an only son,
FREDERICK, who succeeded his brother.
Sir William was succeeded by his elder son,

THOMAS CORNWALLIS, MP for Suffolk during the reign of CHARLES I; who dying unmarried was succeeded by his brother,

FREDERICK CORNWALLIS (c1610-62), who was created a Baronet in 1627; and for the active part he had taken in the civil wars, and his faithful adherence to CHARLES II, through all fortunes, was elevated to the peerage, in 1661, in the dignity of BARON CORNWALLIS, of Eye, Suffolk.

His lordship wedded firstly, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Ashburnham, and had issue, with two other sons and one daughter, who all dspm),
CHARLES, his successor.
He espoused secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Crofts, and had a daughter, Jane.

His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

CHARLES, 2nd Baron (1632-73), who married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Playsted, and was succeeded by his son,

CHARLES, 3rd Baron (1655-98), who wedded firstly, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Stephen Fox, and had issue,
CHARLES, his successor.
He espoused secondly, Anne Scott, Duchess of Buccleuch, widow of the unhappy James, Duke of Monmouth, and by Her Grace had one son, Lord George, who died in youth, and two daughters.

His lordship filled the office of First Commissioner of the Admiralty during the reign of WILLIAM III, and was Lord-Lieutenant of Suffolk.

He was succeeded by his only surviving son,

CHARLES, 4th Baron (1675-c1722), a military officer who served in several campaigns under WILLIAM III, who married the Lady Charlotte Butler, daughter and sole heir of Richard, 1st Earl of Arran, fourth son of James, 1st Duke of Ormonde, and had issue,
CHARLES, his successor;
Stephen, Major-General;
John;
Richard;
Edward, Lieutenant-General;
Frederick (Most Rev), Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of All England;
Henry;
Charlotte; Elizabeth; Mary.
His lordship was appointed, in 1715, Joint Postmaster-General.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

CHARLES, 5th Baron (1700-62); who was created, in 1753, Viscount Brome and Earl Cornwallis.

His lordship wedded, in 1722, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Charles, 2nd Viscount Townshend, and had issue,
CHARLES, his successor;
Henry;
JAMES (Rt Rev), 4th Earl Cornwallis and Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry;
William (Admiral Sir);
Mary; Elizabeth; Charlotte.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

CHARLES, 2nd Earl (1738-1805), KG, who espoused, in 1768, Jemima, daughter of James Jones, and had issue,
CHARLES, his successor;
Mary.
His lordship, a General in the Army, played a prominent role in the American War of Independence, and his surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, ended significant hostilities in North America.

He was installed a knight of the Garter in 1786.

Cornwallis Monument, St Paul's Cathedral, London

General Cornwallis, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief, India, was advanced to the dignity of a marquessate, in 1792, as MARQUESS CORNWALLIS.

He was constituted Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and commander of the forces there in 1799.

General the Most Hon the 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG

In 1804, his lordship had the honour of being appointed, a second time, Governor-General of India; and in that station he died, in 1805, and was succeeded by his son,

CHARLES, 2nd Marquess (1774-1823), Master of the Buckhounds, 1806, who married, in 1797, the Lady Louisa Gordon, daughter of Alexander, 4th Duke of Gordon, KT, and had issue, five daughters,
Jane; Louisa; Jemima; Mary; Elizabeth.
The 2nd Marquess died in 1823, when the marquessate expired; but the other honours reverted to his lordship's uncle,

THE RT REV JAMES CORNWALLIS (1743-1824), Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, and Dean of Durham, as 4th Earl.

His lordship wedded, in 1771, Catherine, daughter of Galfridus Mann, of Egerton, and sister of Sir Horace Mann Bt, by whom he left an only surviving child,

JAMES, 5th Earl (1778-1852), who espoused firstly, in 1804, Maria Isabella, daughter of Francis Dickens, and had issue,
Charles, Viscount Brome (1813-35);
Jemima Isabella.
He married secondly, in 1829, Laura, daughter of William Hayes, of Wollaston Hall, which lady dsp 1840; and thirdly, in 1842, Julia, fourth daughter of Thomas Bacon, by which lady he had issue, a daughter, Julia.

His lordship's only son had died unmarried at the age of 22, and the titles consequently became extinct on his decease in 1852.

Cornwallis arms courtesy of European Heraldry.

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