Monday, 14 September 2020

1st Duke of Abercorn


This is the senior male branch of the house of HAMILTON, represented in the female line by the ducal house of Hamilton and Brandon.

This illustrious and far-spreading family may vye with, if not excel, any other in Europe, for antiquity and dignity.

The pedigree of the HAMILTONS is authentically deduced from BERNARD, kinsman of Rollo, 1st Duke of Normandy, which Bernard was appointed governor, at the decease of Rollo, to his son and successor, WILLIAM I Longsword, surnamed Longue-Épée, and from him (Bernard) descended Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Pont-Audemer, one of the confidential advisers and companions (with his two sons) of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.

This Roger terminated in a splendid career by founding the abbey of Preaux, in Normandy, and becoming a monk therein himself.

Of his two sons, Henry (the 2nd son), surnamed Le Neubourg, rebuilt and fortified Warwick Castle in 1076; while ROBERT, the elder, having ably contributed, as commander of the right wing of His Majesty's army, to the triumph of Hastings, obtained large possessions in England from The Conqueror (not fewer than 91 extensive manors became his); and from HENRY I, in 1103, the earldom of Leicester by his second son ROBERT, whose eldest son and successor, Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester, had three sons; the youngest of whom, WILLIAM, surnamed de Hamilton, from the place of his birth, the manor of Hambledon or Hamilton, in Leicestershire, became founder of the illustrious house of HAMILTON.

SIR GILBERT DE HAMILTON, having expressed himself at the court of EDWARD II in admiration of ROBERT THE BRUCE, King of Scotland, received a blow from John le Despencer, a favourite officer of the King; which led, the following day, to an encounter, wherein Despencer fell; and Hamilton sought security in Scotland, about 1323.

Being closely pursued, however, in his flight, he and his servant changed clothes with two woodcutters, and taking their saws, were in the act of cutting through an oak-tree when his pursuers passed by.

Perceiving his servant notice them, Sir Gilbert hastily cried out to him, "Through" ; which word, with the oak and saw through it, he took for his crest, in commemoration of his deliverance.

This detail is, however, liable to many objections: Sir William Dugdale, in his account of the Earls of Leicester, is totally silent as to the descent of the Hamiltons from Robert, 3rd Earl.

That nobleman, according to Sir William Dugdale, had three sons,
ROBERT, 4th Earl of Leicester;
ROGER, Bishop of St Andrew's, Chancellor of Scotland;
WILLIAM, founder of the hospital of St Leonard, Leicester.
That this last William predeceased his eldest brother without issue is evident from the circumstance of the great inheritance of the Earls of Leicester devolving, on the decease of the 4th Earl, in 1204, upon his sisters; and Simon de Montfort, the husband of the eldest, having, in her right, the title of Earl of Leicester. 

WILLIAM DE HAMILTON occurs frequently in Thomas Rymer's "Fœdera" from 1274 to 1306, being employed by EDWARD I in various negotiations and transactions of importance.

He was appointed Dean of York in 1298, and High Chancellor of England, 1305.

This is the first of the name noticed in the "Fœdera".

It appears somewhat earlier, however, in Scotland; GILBERT DE HAMILTON being on record in the chartulary of Paisley in 1272.

The younger son of this Gilbert, John, was ancestor of the Earls of Haddington; the elder,

SIR WALTER DE HAMILTON, swore fealty to EDWARD I in 1292 and 1294.

Attaching himself to King Robert, he had divers grants of lands, amongst others, the barony of Kinneil and Cadzow (now Hamilton), in the sheriffdom of Lanark.

From this Sir Walter lineally descended

DAVID, one of the persons who took the oath of allegiance to EDWARD I, in 1292.

From this gentleman descended

SIR JAMES HAMILTON, of Cadzow, created Lord Hamilton, in 1445; and succeeded, in 1479, by his only son,

JAMES, 2nd Lord, who was advanced to an earldom, in 1503, as Earl of Arran, and was succeeded, in 1529, by his only son,

JAMES, 2nd Earl; who, having been declared by the Parliament of Scotland, 1543, heir-presumptive to the crown of that kingdom, was, in consequence thereof, appointed tutor to Queen Mary, and governor of the realm during Her Majesty's minority.

In five years afterwards, his lordship was invested with the French Order of Saint Michael; and created, by HENRY II of France, DUKE OF CHÂTELLERAULT, in Poitou.

His Grace married the Lady Margaret Douglas, eldest daughter of James, 3rd Earl of Morton), and died in 1575.

His third son,

LORD CLAUD HAMILTON (1543-1621), being amongst the most zealous partisans of MARY, Queen of Scots, obtained, as the reward of his fidelity, from Her Majesty's son, JAMES VI, in 1587, a grant of the whole barony of Paisley, with the dignity of BARON PAISLEY.

His lordship married Margaret, only daughter of George, Lord Seton, and had four sons and one daughter, namely, 
I JAMES (1575-1618), Master of Paisley, who was created, in 1603, Baron Abercorn, with remainder to his heirs male, and assigns whatever; and advanced, in 1606, to the EARLDOM OF ABERCORN, with the minor dignities of Baron Hamilton, Mountcastell and Kilpatrick, attached. His lordship was subsequently called by summons to the house of Peers in Ireland, in the same rank of earl; and by the same title; and having obtained a large grant of land in the barony of Strabane in that kingdom, erected there a strong castle, with a schoolhouse and church, and founded a town of about 80 houses. He wedded Marion, eldest daughter of Thomas, 6th Lord Boyd, and dying in 1617, left issue,
1. JAMES, 2nd Earl, of whom presently;
2. CLAUD, 2nd Baron Hamilton of Strabane, who succeeded to the Irish estates, and, on the resignation of his brother, Lord Abercorn, was created, in 1634, Lord Hamilton, Baron of Strabane. His lordship married, in 1632, Lady Jane Gordon, 4th daughter of George, 1st Marquess of Huntly; and dying in 1638 left (with a daughter) two sons,
James, who succeeded as Lord Strabane, and joined Sir Phelim O'Neill against the Parliamentarians, but was unfortunately drowned in 1655. His lordship died a Roman Catholic;
George, 5th Lord Strabane, who wedded Elizabeth, daughter of Christopher Fagan, of Feltrim, County Dublin, and left, with other issue,
CLAUD, Lord Strabane, of whom hereafter, as 4TH EARL OF ABERCORN.
3. WILLIAM (Sir), dsp;
4. GEORGE, of Donalong, County Tyrone, and of Nenagh, County Tipperary, a faithful adherent of THE CHARLESES, who was rewarded with a baronetcy, in 1660. Sir George espoused Mary, 3rd daughter of Walter, Viscount Thurles, by whom he had six sons and three daughters; of the former was Anthony, the celebrated Count Hamilton, author of the Memoirs of Gramont; and the eldest of the latter was the beautiful and accomplished ELIZABETH HAMILTON, who married Philibert, Count of Gramont. Sir George's eldest son, JAMES, was a colonel in the army, and died of a wound in 1673; leaving three sons, of whom the eldest, JAMES, succeeded as 6th Earl;
5. ALEXANDER (Sir), settled in Austria, and was created a count of the Empire;
6. ANNE, married Hugh, 5th Lord Semple;
7. MARGARET, wedded Sir William Cuninghame;
8. LUCY was contracted by her father to Randal, Lord Dunluce, afterwards Marquess of Antrim; but that nobleman refusing to abide by the contract, his father, the Earl of Antrim, was obliged to pay the Earl of Abercorn £3,000 as compensation: the lady remained unmarried.
II CLAUD (Sir), Gentleman of The King's Privy Chamber, from whom lineally descended Lieutenant-General Sir John James Hamilton Bt, of Woodbrook;
III GEORGE (Sir), of Greenlaw and Rosscrea, in Ireland, whose only daughter, Margaret, wedded Sir Archibald Acheson Bt, of Gosford, Haddingtonshire, a Lord of Session, and Secretary of State for Scotland, ancestor of the Earls of Gosford;
IV FREDERICK, who signallized himself under the banner of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden; was Gentleman-in-Ordinary to JAMES, and to CHARLES I; and obtained large grants of lands in Ireland. He wedded Sidney, daughter and heiress of the Rt Hon Sir John Vaughan, Governor of Londonderry, and had issue.
Lord Paisley died in 1621, and was succeeded by his grandson,

JAMES (c1604-c1670), 2nd Earl and 2nd Baron Paisley; who had been previously advanced to the peerage, in 1617, by the title of Lord Hamilton of Strabane, which honour, upon his lordship's petition to CHARLES I, was transferred to his next brother, the Hon Claud Hamilton.

Lord Abercorn was excommunicated, by the general commisssion of the Church of Scotland, in 1649, as a Roman Catholic, and ordered to depart the Kingdom.

He married Catherine, daughter and heiress of Gervais, Lord Clifton, of Leighton Bromswold, relict of Esme, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, and had issue,
JAMES, Lord Paisley, who predeceased him, leaving an only daughter, CATHERINE, m 1st to William Lenthal; and 2nd, to Charles, 5th Earl of Abercorn;
William, an officer in the army, killed in the wars in Germany, dsp;
GEORGE, his successor.
His Lordship was succeeded at his decease by his only surviving son,

GEORGE, 3rd Earl (c1636-c1680), who died unmarried and was succeeded by his cousin (revert to Claud, second son of James, Master of Paisley, 1st Earl of Abercorn),

CLAUD, Lord Strabane, as 4th Earl (c1659-c1691); who, attending JAMES II after the revolution, from France, was sworn of the Privy Council upon his arrival in Dublin.

His lordship, on the discomfiture of his royal master at the Boyne, having embarked for France, lost his life in the voyage.

In 1691 he had been outlawed, and forfeited the estate and title of STRABANE; but the earldom of Abercorn devolved upon his brother,

CHARLES, 5th Earl, who, the late Earl's attainder having been reversed, succeeded likewise to the restored title and estate of STRABANE; but, leaving no issue at his decease in 1701, the honours and estates devolved upon his kinsman (revert to Sir George Hamilton Bt, of Donalong, fourth son of James, 1st Earl of Abercorn),

JAMES, 6th Earl (c1661-1734), who had declined assuming the title of Baronet at the decease of his grandfather, 1769, but was known as "Captain Hamilton".

This gentleman was in the military service and confidence of JAMES II; but, espousing the cause of WILLIAM III, took a distinguished part at the siege of Londonderry against his royal master.

Succeeding to the earldom of Abercorn, his lordship, in virtue thereof, took his seat, in 1706, as a member of the Scottish parliament.

Ireland was, however, the usual place of his residence; and of that realm, in 1701, he was created Baron Mountcastle and Viscount Strabane.

He espoused, in 1686, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Reading Bt, of Dublin, by whom he had issue nine sons and four daughters,
Robert, died in infancy;
JAMES, his successor;
Robert, died in infancy;
John, died unmarried;
George, died in infancy;
George, married and had issue;
Francis (Rev), married and had issue;
William, lost aboard HMS Royal Anne;
Charles, of Painshill Park;
Elizabeth; Jane; Mary; Philippa; Jane.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

JAMES, 7th Earl (1685-1744), who married, in 1711, Anne, eldest daughter of  Colonel John Plumer, of Blakesware, Hertfordshire, and had, with one daughter, six sons, of whom,
JAMES, his successor;
John, m Harriet, dau. of the Rt Hon J Craggs, secretary of state, and had a son, JOHN JAMES, who inherited as 9th Earl;
George, Canon of Windsor, who married and had numerous issue.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

JAMES, 8th Earl (1712-89), who died unmarried, 1789, when the family honours devolved upon his nephew,

JOHN JAMES, 9th Earl (1756-1818), KG, who was created, in 1790, MARQUESS OF ABERCORN, and subsequently installed as a Knight of the Garter.

1st Marquess of Abercorn KG (Image: National Trust for Scotland)

His lordship wedded firstly, in 1799, Catherine, daughter of Sir Joseph Copley, of Sprotborough, Yorkshire, by whom he had, with other children,
JAMES, Viscount Hamilton, who died in 1814, leaving issue by Harriet, daughter of the Hon John Douglas, and granddaughter of James, 14th Earl of Morton, JAMES, who inherited the honours from his grandfather and became 2nd Marquess and 1st Duke; Claud, b 1813; Harriet,  Capt Hamilton RN.
Catherine Elizabeth, m George, Earl of Aberdeen.
Her ladyship died in 1791.

Lord Abercorn espoused, in 1792, his cousin Cecil, eighth daughter of the Hon George Hamilton, from whom he was divorced, in 1799: By this marriage he had an only child, the Lady Cecil Frances Hamilton, who wedded, in 1816, William, 3rd Earl of Wicklow.

Lord Abercorn married thirdly, in 1810, the Lady Anne Jane Gore, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Arran.

His lordship was succeeded by his grandson,

JAMES, 2nd Marquess (1811-85), KG, who was created, in 1868, DUKE OF ABERCORN.

My information about the Abercorn family and estates comes from several sources, including the Abercorn Papers at the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland; and the NI Environment Agency. Despite the length of this article, it has, nevertheless, been greatly condensed.

The best documented Abercorn property outside Tyrone and Donegal is the Dublin town-house on the corner of York Street and Stephen's Green which was held by lease from the Dean and Chapter of St Patrick's, and was brought into the family through the 6th Earl's marriage in 1684.


The Priory, Stanmore, Middlesex, was another property of the Dukes of Abercorn.

In 1852-1854, this was sold (for over £90,000) by the 2nd Marquess, afterwards 1st Duke, in order to pay off his debts and, it was said, after some deliberation over whether Baronscourt should be sold instead.

Most of the title deed material relating to the Middlesex estate passed to the purchaser, Sir John Kelk.


Hampden House, in Green Street, London, became the town house of the Abercorn family in 1869.

In 1868, at the time the dukedom of Abercorn was created, the rental income of the estates had been restored to its 1818 level, standing at nearly £40,000 a year.

By the mid-1850s, the 1st Duke had spent nearly £30,000 buying church lands and other property in the vicinity of Baronscourt, and at least £20,000 more on improving and planting them.

During the financial crisis which beset him at that time, and which obliged him to sell The Priory, outlying townlands in his inherited fee simple estate in Tyrone and Donegal with a rental of over £2,000 a year were sold for £51,000.

Both the composition and character of the estate changed greatly during this period.


The Abercorns were never extensive landowners in England: The Priory estate, for example, which was probably the largest English property they ever owned, produced a mere £2,750 of income per annum in 1840.

In 1797, the 1st Marquess described the Priory as "a large house, [run] at great expense, without what deserves the name of property around it".

Yet, from at least the late 17th century, when the 5th Earl was in possession of a property in Oxfordshire, the Abercorns were never without an English base.

Indeed, during the period 1868-1918, three of the 1st Duke's sons sat in parliament for English constituencies.

The 7th and 8th Earls maintained town houses, first in Cavendish Square and then (by 1763) in Grosvenor Square, as well as Witham Place, to which the 8th Earl added a wing in the 1740s.

The 1st Marquess sold Witham, but retained his uncle's town house, and greatly extended his own house and estate at Stanmore.

Ironically, the proximate reason for the 1st Duke's having to sell The Priory in 1852-1854, was an over-ambitious attempt to extend his English base by spending nearly £100,000 (which he did not possess) on buying the estate of Dale Park, near Arundel, Sussex.

Both before and after the sale of The Priory, the 1st Duke kept up a succession of London town houses:
Dudley House (Park Lane);
Chesterfield House (Audley Street);
Hampden House (Green Street), from 1869 till 1st World War.

BARONSCOURT, near Newtownstewart, County Tyrone, is one of the grandest stately homes in Northern Ireland and, indeed, further afield.

It has been in continuous use as the ancestral seat of the Hamiltons, Earls and Dukes of Abercorn, since 1780.

It affords the finest quality in detailing and craftsmanship.

Baronscourt has been associated with a number of distinguished architects and has undergone at least three periods of extensive remodelling since its construction.
It was originally designed by George Steuart; subsequently enlarged by Sir John Soane, in 1790; and again by William Vitruvius Morrison, ca 1830; taking on its current appearance only ca 1945, when the house was reduced in size by Sir Albert Richardson.
As a result, the house has quite a complex plan, especially at the north side, where rooms are on a number of levels.

It is neo-classical in style, faced in ashlar sandstone; generally two-storey over a basement; with formal gardens to the front and south; and entrance elevation with a huge portico and asymmetrical pavilions to the north.

Internal refurbishment by David Hicks ca 1970 is also notable.

The main house is complemented by the lower level garage block, a detatched store and an ornate gate screen to the south.

Baronscourt is beautifully situated in an extensive demesne with formal gardens, parkland, woodland, and three loughs.

It is overlooked by the stableyard to east and has numerous ancillary structures, including a two earlier ducal residences, an 18th century classical villa, and a 17th century plantation house.

The mansion house and wider demesne are of considerable architectural, historical and significance.

DURING the plantation of Ulster, extensive lands in County Tyrone were granted to the 1st Earl of Abercorn, in 1611, by JAMES I.

Baronscourt was included and was part of the manor of Derrygoon.

The demesne lies in the townland of Barons Court, within the parish of Ardstraw, about 2½ miles south-west of Newtownstewart.

The present mansion house was originally constructed ca 1780; remodelled and extended ca 1790; and again ca 1835 and ca 1945.

The Abercorn family originally had their residence in what is now the Agent's House.

Baronscourt House was built on its present site ca 1780.

Correspondence shows that the building was complete by 1781; plans were already underway to convert the earlier house; and to carry out other improvements in the demesne.

The 8th Earl employed George Steuart as his architect.

(Sir) John Soane was employed by the 1st Marquess to remodel the house during 1791-92.

Alterations included enlarging and remodelling the house and reorienting, to create a north-facing front.

Building accounts show that these changes cost the 1st Marquess at least £14,500, or £1.8 million today.

In 1793, James Hamilton described the change as
completely metamorphosed, both as to house and grounds, as scarcely to bear a single trace of resemblance to the former appearance of either.
In 1796, an accidental fire at the house gutted the main block of Soane's building, causing the loss of distinctive features.

Robert Woodgate, already at Baronscourt overseeing work for Soane, was put in charge of reconstruction between 1797-98.

Additional changes were subsequently made in 1810 by Mr Turner.

In the 1830s, considerable improvements and alterations were made to the house.

Around this time, the 2nd Marquess asked William Farrell and William Vitruvius Morrison to produce plans for remodelling. Morrison's plans were chosen.

His father, Richard Morrison, took over after his death in 1838. Remodelling cost almost £20,000 (£1.8 million today).

The house was further enlarged and a massive, pedimented port-cochere was added.

The house was given a rich neo-classical interior and a formal garden was added at this time.

The Morrisons contributed largely to the interior of Baronscourt: Greek Ionic columns, the Rotunda, and a large dining room with scagliola pilasters, were amongst the additions.

Richard Morrison's own contribution is the Palladian-Revival ceiling in the library, in 1839.

The house was subject to another fire ca 1940.

It is said that, thereafter, Sir Albert Richardson made some changes for the 3rd Duke ca 1945, including the demolition of two substantial wings.

David Hicks was commissioned to remodel the interior between 1975-6.

Woodland planting began here in 1746, when the 8th Earl sent a gardener here called James Broomfield to put down trees, and in 1751, on the opposite side of Lough Fanny, the deer park established and stocked with deer from England.

This was planted by Broomfield with clumps of lime, beech and laburnum.

Extensive large-scale landscaping took place at Baronscourt in 1770s and 1780s as a setting for the new Steuart designed house.

Much of this work was supervised by Thomas Hudson, then the head gardener [discharged 1790].

When Daniel Beauford came here in 1786 he commented upon the ‘magnificent seat’ and ‘the great number of fine oaks and three long narrow lakes which ornament this place and give it an air of great grandeur’.

The park with its extensive plantations, enclosing all three lakes, covered about 900 acres by the early 19th century.

In the 1840s, following the remodelling of the house by the Morrisons, the park was considerably enlarged and extensively re-designed, almost certainly to designs of the famous landscape gardener James Frazer.

The Lough Fanny deer park was also enlarged to occupy the whole area between the lake and the public road skirting the demesne; at this time the deer was landscaped to form an integral part of the landscape park.

In consequence to this development, the view across the lough to the rising ground of the Deer Park is now decorated with a great number of splendid mature parkland trees.

In the decades following the Morrison improvements a number of garden embellishments were added near the house itself.

In the late 1840s or early 1850s an enormous ramped Italian parterre terraced garden was added to the lake or west front, with a parterre designed by W. Broderick Thomas.

It is believed that thirteen gardeners alone were needed to tend this parterre, which was cleared in 1913 and replaced for many years with rather unsatisfactory island beds; eventually these, too,were removed and now only some stone balustrading survives.

On the south side of the house a terraced garden was made by the Dublin gardener Ninian Niven in 1876 for the 1st Duke, after his second term as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1874-6).

This garden was formed on three terraces with terracotta balustrading and urns and a semi-circle of yew-hedges on the lowest terrace.

It was here that the pale peachy orange Potentilla ‘Sophie’s Blush’ was discovered.

In the early 1990s this was restored and herbaceous borders replanted in the middle terrace.

Northwest of the house an avenue of alternating Monkey Puzzles and Lawson Cypress ‘Erecta viridis’ was planted in the 1860s, some reaching over 100 feet tall when they were removed in the 1980s.

To the west of this was a woodland garden with a shelter of Scots Pine.

The area was planted with Japanese maples and later; in the 1920 and 1930s, rhododendrons were placed here.

In the 1890s, the 2nd Duke created a bog garden for his wife, Mary Anna.

It was made astride a small stream between Lough Fanny and Lough Mary; bamboo inevitably took over much of this area in later years.

The 2nd Duke also added the stable block in 1889-90 to a design of the Belfast architect Joseph Bell.

Around this time a second deer park was made at Baronscourt on the hills east of the demesne; it was created in imitation of Scottish Deer Parks of the time and was used mainly to stock Red Deer.

It remained in use until the 1920s.

The whole of Baronscourt is a fully maintained domestic and working demesne. Farmland and acres of mixed woods are managed.

There are large traces of commercial forest, composed mainly of larch, white fir, western hemlock, Scots Pine and some popular, much of which was the product of the extensive planting by the 4th Duke, who had a passion for forestry and introduced Nothofagus as a crop, using seed from Chile.

Lying in unexpected places within some of the plantations are found old magnolias and walnuts, planted by the 3rd Duke as ‘surprise trees’.

The walled garden is used by Baronscourt Nurseries.

The demesne includes many subsidiary buildings, notably the highly picturesque ‘Rock Cottage’ of c.1832, designed by Peter Frederick Robinson and located at the Largybeg Gate.

Other gate lodges by Robinson, who was probably recommended by Soane, includes the picturesque Church Lodge or ‘Devine’s Gate’ (1835) and the Newtownstewart Gate Lodge, the latter being an adoption from Robinson’s book Designs for Lodges and Park Entrances (1833).

Another lodge, ‘Moore’s Lodge’ of ca 1780 has been demolished and may have been the work of John Soane.

Richard Morrison ca 1837 drew plans for three entrances and accompanying lodges, but none were executed.

The demesne church lying above Lough Mary was consecrated in 1858; its grounds contain a large Celtic cross, 1885, designed by Dublin architect Walter Glynn Doolin (1819-1900) and restored in 2005.

In recent years a log-built Russian style house, designed by Richard Pierce, has been built as a retreat in the park south of the House.

The Abercorn family owns the Belle Isle estate in County Fermanagh, run by the Duke's younger son, Lord Nicholas Hamilton.

 Abercorn arms courtesy of European Heraldry.   First published in December, 2009.


Janet Gyford said...

Re the Abercorns' house at Witham, in Essex, it wasn't called Witham Place - the latter was another house, owned by the Southcotts for a long time. The Abercorns' house was known as the Grove (pulled down in the 1930s).

Anonymous said...

The landscaping of the entire estate is impressive as is the vast records kept by the Public Records Office.

However, the pioneering forestry work undertaken by Mr Hamilton and his colleagues is nothing short of remarkable. A fine example of an estate which strikes a balance between ownership and commercial acumen.

The Belle Isle Estate also owned by Abercorns is another example of this.

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Anonymous said...

I understand that the current Duchess of Abercorn is a Russian; this may be why a Russian-style log house hasnrecently been built at Baronscourt.

Andrew said...

A descendant of Pushkin I think.