Monday, 10 May 2021

House of Caulfeild

The settlement of this noble family in Ireland took place in the reign of ELIZABETH I, when 

THE RT HON SIR TOBY CAULFEILD (1565-1627), a distinguished and gallant soldier, was employed in that part of Her Majesty's dominions against the formidable Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone.

He was the son of Alexander Caulfeild, Recorder of Oxford, who was descended from ancestors of great antiquity and worth, settled in that county, and at Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire.

In 1615, Sir Toby was appointed one of the council for the province of Munster.

The next year, 1616, he joined in commission with the Lord Deputy of Ireland (Oliver St John, 1st Viscount Grandison), and others, for parcelling out the escheated lands in Ulster to such British undertakers as were named in the several tables of assignation.

In these employments, the King (JAMES I) found him so faithful, diligent, and prudent, that His Majesty deemed him highly deserving the peerage, and accordingly created him, in 1620, Lord Caulfeild, Baron Charlemont, with limitation of the honour to his nephew, Sir William Caulfeild, Knight.

His lordship died unmarried, in 1627, and was succeeded by the said 

SIR WILLIAM CAULFEILD, 2nd Baron Charlemont (1587-1640), who took his seat in parliament, in 1634, after the Lord Chancellor of Ireland had moved to know the pleasure of the House, whether he should be admitted to this place, having brought neither writ of summons nor patent; whereupon it was resolved that his lordship should be admitted, inasmuch as they were all satisfied that he was a Lord of Parliament.

His lordship wedded Mary, daughter of Sir John King, Knight (ancestor of the Earls of Kingston), by whom he had seven sons and three daughters; from the youngest son, Thomas, descended the Caulfeilds of Donamon, County Roscommon.

He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

TOBY, 3rd Baron (1621-42), who also succeeded his late father as Governor of Charlemont Fort, and there resided, with his company of the 97th Regiment of Foot, in garrison.

Charlemont Fort

This fort was a place of considerable strength and importance during the rebellion of 1641; but his lordship suffered himself to be surprised, in that year; and being made prisoner, with his whole family, was subsequently murdered, by the orders, it is said, of Sir Phelim O'Neill.

This unfortunate nobleman died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother, 

ROBERT, 4th Baron (1622-42), who died a few months afterwards from an overdose of a prescription of opium, and was succeeded by his next brother, 

WILLIAM, 5th Baron (1624-71), who apprehended Sir Phelim O'Neill, and had him executed for the murder of his brother, the 3rd Baron.

His lordship having filled, after the Restoration, several high and confidential situations, was advanced to a viscountcy, in 1655, as VISCOUNT CHARLEMONT.

He wedded Sarah, second daughter of Charles, Viscount Drogheda, by whom he had four sons and three daughters, of whom,
WILLIAM, his successor;
His lordship was succeeded by his son, 

WILLIAM, 2nd Viscount (c1655-1726), who zealously opposed the cause of JAMES II, by whose parliament he was attainted; but WILLIAM III, after the rebellion was quelled, gave him a regiment of foot and made him Governor of counties Tyrone and Armagh etc.

He espoused Anne, only daughter of the Most Rev Dr James Margetson, Lord Archbishop of Armagh, by whom he had, with five daughters, five sons to survive infancy, viz.
JAMES, his heir;
Thomas, Governor of Annapolis;
Charles, in holy orders;
John, MP;
Henry Charles.

His lordship died after enjoying the peerage for more than half a century, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,  

JAMES, 3rd Viscount (1682-1734), MP for Charlemont, 1703-5, 1713-26, who married Elizabeth, only daughter of the Rt Hon Francis Bernard, of Castle Mahon, County Cork, one of the judges of the court of common pleas in Ireland, by whom he had two sons; the younger, Francis, who wedded Mary, only daughter of John, Lord Eyre, was lost, with his lady, infant child, and servant, in a hurricane, during his passage to Ireland from London, in 1775, to fulfil his parliamentary duties as Member for the borough of Charlemont.

His lordship left issue, Colonel James Eyre Caulfeild, born in 1765, and Eleanor, who espoused William, 3rd Earl of Wicklow.

The 3rd Viscount was succeeded by his only surviving son, 

JAMES, 4th Viscount (1728-99), KP, who was created, in 1763, EARL OF CHARLEMONT.

He married, in 1768, Mary, daughter of Thomas Hickman, of County Clare, and had issue,
FRANCIS WILLIAM, his successor;
Henry, MP;
His lordship, a distinguished patriot, had the honour of commanding-in-chief the celebrated Irish Volunteers in 1779.

His son and heir,

FRANCIS WILLIAM, 2nd Earl (1775-1863), KP, wedded, in 1802, Anne, youngest daughter and co-heir of William Bermingham, of Ross Hill, County Galway, but had no surviving issue, when the family honours devolved upon his nephew,

JAMES MOLYNEUX, 3rd Earl (1820-92), KP (son of the Hon Henry, 2nd son of 1st Earl), Lord-Lieutenant of County Tyrone, MP for Armagh, 1847-67.

His lordship died in 1892, when the earldom and barony became extinct, and the remaining peerages devolved upon his cousin,

JAMES ALFRED, 7th Viscount (1830-1913), CB JP DL, of Loy House, Cookstown and Drumcairne, County Tyrone,
Vice Lord-Lieutenant of County Tyrone, 1868, High Sheriff of County Tyrone, 1868; Comptroller of the Household of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1868-95; Honorary Colonel, 3rd Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers; Usher of the Black Rod of the Order of St Patrick, 1879-1913.
The 8th Viscount (1880-1949), PC DL, was elected to the Northern Ireland Parliament as a senator, where he sat from 1925-37, and was Minister for Education.
James Alfred Caulfeild, 7th Viscount (1830–1913);
James Edward Caulfeild, 8th Viscount (1880–1949);
Charles Edward St George Caulfeild, 9th Viscount (1887–1962);
Robert Toby St George Caulfeild, 10th Viscount (1881–1967);
Charles St George Caulfeild, 11th Viscount (1884–1971);
Richard St George Caulfeild, 12th Viscount (1887–1979);
Charles Wilberforce Caulfeild, 13th Viscount (1899–1985);
John Day Caulfeild, 14th Viscount (1934–2001);
John Dodd Caulfeild, 15th Viscount (b 1966).
The heir apparent is the present holder's son, the Hon Shane Andrew Caulfeild (b 1996).

The Viscounts Charlemont were a Patrick family, three members of whom were Knights of St Patrick.

© "CastleCaulfeild 2008" by Skremer at English Wikipedia

Sir Toby Caulfeild built Castle Caulfield [sic] in County Tyrone. 

ROXBOROUGH CASTLE (above), Lord Charlemont's main country seat, was near the village of Moy, County Tyrone, the exquisite gates being all that are left as a reminder.

The Castle and the nearby Charlemont Fort, on the County Armagh side of the river, were both burnt by the IRA in 1920.

Subsequently Lord Charlemont resided at another residence, Drumcairne, near Stewartstown in County Tyrone.

It is thought that he eventually moved to Newcastle, County Down.

He inherited the titles from his uncle in 1913.

Having no children, the titles passed, on his death, to a cousin.

The 14th Viscount lived in Ontario, Canada and the viscountcy is still extant with the present 15th Viscount Charlemont.

First published in May, 2013.


Anonymous said...

Dreadful looking monstrosity, Roxborough Castle - the family must have been quite relieved to be rid of it. Looks more like a railway hotel than a country house. VC

Unknown said...

I must disagree with the comment about Roxborough Castle. The comparison with railway hotels might be applied to many of the larger country houses in these islands. However, most of these are magnificent buildings indeed and those open to the public or in ownership of the National Trust are extremely popular with visitors. Teasing - what is the least loved such building here in NI or Ireland?

Shane Caulfeild said...

Hi All,

Thanks for the summary of my family - love reading about the heritage of my ancestors.

Joy Beckett said...

Hello,During the present Covid Lockdown I am working on my family tree. My great uncle William Farmer(Moy Co. Tyrone) was butler to the 7th Viscount Charlemont at Drumcairne Stewartstown in 1901 and 1910(census Records) Does anyone have any information about him or where he went after the Viscount died ? I know from his marriage certiicate of 29th July 1914 his occupation was still butler.Joy Beckett