Tuesday, 31 March 2020

General Howe

HENRY HOWE, living during the reign of HENRY VIII, left a son,

JOHN HOWE, of Huntspill, Somerset, who died in 1574, and was succeeded by his son,

JOHN HOWE (1556-91), MP for Yarmouth, 1589, who married Jane, daughter of Nicholas Grubham, of Bishop's Lydeard, Somerset, and sister of Sir Richard Grubham, of Great Wishford, in Wiltshire, and with other issue, had
JOHN, of whom presently;
George, ancestor of the Howe Baronets, of Cold Barwick.
The eldest son,

SIR JOHN HOWE, obtained the manor of Compton, Gloucestershire, and other estates, by gift of his uncle, Sir Richard Grobham, and was created a Baronet, in 1660, designated of Cold Barwick, Wiltshire.

Sir John wedded Bridget, daughter of Thomas Rich, of North Cerney, Gloucestershire, one of the Masters in Chancery, and had issue,
Richard Grobham, who succeeded to his father's title and estates;
JOHN GROBHAM, of whom we treat;
The younger son,

JOHN GROBHAM HOWE (1625-79), of Langar Hall, Nottinghamshire, MP for Gloucestershire, 1659-79, obtained the manor of Langar by marrying the Lady Annabella Scrope, daughter and co-heir of Emmanuel, 1st Earl of Sunderland, and had issue,
SCROPE, his heir;
John Grobham;
Emanuel Scrope;
Elizabeth; Bridget; another son and two other daughters.
The eldest son,

SIR SCROPE HOWE (1648-1713), Knight, MP for Nottinghamshire, 1673-81 and 1689-91, espoused firstly, in 1672, the Lady Anne Manners, sixth daughter of John, 8th Earl of Rutland, and had issue,
John Scrope, died young;
Annabella; Margaret.
He married secondly, in 1698, Juliana, daughter of William, 3rd Baron Alington, by which lady he had further issue,
EMANUEL SCROPE, his successor;
Mary; Judith; Anne.
Sir Scrope was elevated to the peerage, in 1701, in the dignity of Baron Glenawly, County Fermanagh, and VISCOUNT HOWE.

His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

EMANUEL SCROPE, 2nd Viscount (1700-35); who inherited subsequently as 4th Baronet in 1730, on the demise of Sir Richard Grobham Howe, the ancient baronetcy of the family.

his lordship wedded, in 1719, Mary Sophia charlotte, eldest daughter of the Hanoverian Baron Kielmansegg, Master of the horse to GEORGE I, as Elector of Hanover, and had issue,
GEORGE AUGUSTUS, his successor;
RICHARD, successor to his brother;
John, died in 1769;
WILLIAM, 5th Viscount;
Caroline; Charlotte; Juliana; Mary.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

GEORGE AUGUSTUS, 3rd Viscount (c1724-58), who served as Brigadier-General in the Seven Years' War, and fell at Fort Ticonderoga, in 1758, when the title devolved upon his brother,

RICHARD, 4th Viscount (1726-99), KG, the celebrated Admiral Howe; who, for his gallant professional services, was created a peer of Great Britain, in 1782, by the title of Viscount Howe; and advanced, in 1788, to an earldom, in the dignity of EARL HOWE, being, at the same time, created Baron Howe of Langar, with reversion of the latter dignity, in default of male, to his female issue.

Admiral of the Fleet the Rt Hon the 1st Earl Howe

His lordship was installed a Knight of the Garter in 1797.

He married, in 1758, Mary, daughter of Chiverton Hartropp, and had three daughters,
SOPHIA CHARLOTTE, Baroness Howe of Langar;
Maria Juliana; Louisa Catherine.
Lord Howe died in 1799, when the viscountcy and earldom of Howe expired.

The barony devolved upon his eldest daughter; and the Irish honours of Viscount Howe and Baron Glenawly, with the baronetcy, reverted to his brother,

GENERAL THE RT HON SIR WILLIAM HOWE KB (1729-1814), 5th Viscount,  Commander-in-Chief, North America, 1775-78, Governor of Plymouth, 1808-14.

His lordship wedded, in 1765, Frances, daughter of the Rt Hon William James Conolly, of Castletown, County Kildare, though died without issue, when the titles expired.

General the Rt Hon the 5th Viscount Howe KB

This nobleman was one of the principal officers employed in America during the war for independence, and had the chief command from the return of General Gage, in 1775, to 1778.

The 1st and last Earl Howe's eldest daughter having, at the decease of her father, inherited the barony, became

(SOPHIA) CHARLOTTE, BARONESS HOWE OF LANGAR (1762-1835); who espoused firstly, in 1787, the Hon Penn Assheton Curzon, eldest son of Assheton, 1st Viscount Curzon, by whom she had issue,
George Augustus (1788-1805);
Mr Curzon dying in 1797, the Baroness married secondly, in 1812, Sir Jonathan Wathen Waller Bt, by whom she had no child.

Her ladyship was succeeded by her son,


Howe arms courtesy of European Heraldry.

Drenagh House


This is a junior branch (which settled in Ulster during the reign of JAMES VI, King of Scotland) of the ancient Scottish house of MACAUSLANE, of Buchanan, which sprang from

JOHN MACAUSLANE, who acquired the lands of Buchanan, on The Lennox, and from whom they descended in direct male succession to Sir Walter MacAuslane, 11th Laird, who lived during the reign of ROBERT II.

The heir male is said to have settled in Ulster during the reign of the Scottish king, JAMES VI.

He had two sons, of whom the elder,

ANDREW MACAUSLANE, was grandfather of 

COLONEL ROBERT McCAUSLAND (c1685-c1734), of Fruit Hill, near Limavady, styled his "cousin" in the will of Captain Oliver McCausland, of Strabane, of which he was left executor and also a legatee.

He had estates in the parish of Cappagh, County Tyrone, and succeeded under the will of the Rt Hon William Conolly to considerable property in County Londonderry.

Colonel McCausland married, in 1709, Hannah, daughter of William Moore, of Garvey, and widow of James Hamilton, junior, of Strabane, and by her left surviving issue,
CONOLLY, his heir;
Marcus, of Daisy Hill;
Frederick, of Streeve Hill;
Sarah; Rebecca; Hannah.
The eldest son,

CONOLLY McCAUSLAND (1713-94), of Fruit Hill, wedded, in 1742, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gage, of Magilligan, and eventually sole heir to her brother, Hodson Gage, of Bellarena, and left issue, 
CONOLLY, his heir;
Hannah; Elizabeth; Sarah; Sydney.
The elder son,

CONOLLY McCAUSLAND (1754-1827), of Fruit Hill, espoused, in 1778, Theodosia, sister to Maurice, 3rd Baron Hartland,  and daughter of Thomas Mahon, of Strokestown House, by Jane, daughter of Maurice, Lord Brandon, and had issue,
MARCUS, his heir;
Conolly Robert;
Frederick Hervey;
Jane; Elizabeth; Eleanor; Theodosia.
Mr McCausland, who assumed the name of GAGE in 1816, was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

MARCUS McCAUSLAND DL (1787-1862), of Fruit Hill (Drenagh), who married, in 1815, Marianne, daughter of Thomas Tyndall, of The Fort, near Bristol, and had issue,
Marianne; Theodosia Sydney; Henrietta Caroline; Katherine Geraldine;
Eleanor Georgiana; Julia; Georgiana; Adelaide.
Mr McCausland was succeeded by his only son,

CONOLLY THOMAS McCAUSLAND JP DL (1828-1902), of Drenagh, High Sheriff of County Londonderry, 1866, Captain, Derry Militia, who wedded, in 1867, Laura, second daughter of St Andrew, 15th Baron St John of Bletso, and had issue,
Edmund Thomas William;
Eleanor Marianna Katharine; Lucia; Geraldine; Julia Sydney; Lettice Theodosia; Emily Octavia.
Captain McCausland was succeeded by his eldest son,

THE RT HON MAURICE MARCUS McCAUSLAND (1872-1938), of Drenagh, High Sheriff of County Londonderry, 1908, Lord-Lieutenant of County Londonderry, 1926-38, who wedded, in 1902, Eileen Leslie, second daughter of Robert Alexander Ogilby, of Pellipar, County Londonderry, and had issue,
Helen Laura, b 1903;
Eileen Mary, b 1910.
Mr McCausland was succeeded by his only son,

CONOLLY ROBERT McCAUSLAND MC JP DL (1906-68), of Drenagh, Lieutenant-Colonel, Irish Guards, who espoused, in 1932, the Lady Margaret Edgcumbe, daughter of 6th Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, and had issue,
Antony Richard, b 1941;
Piers Conolly, b 1949;
Mary Fania; Caroline Ann.
Colonel McCausland was succeeded by his eldest son,

MARCUS EDGCUMBE McCAUSLAND (1933-72), of Drenagh, who married, in 1962, June Patricia MacAdam, and had issue,
Shane Francis Marcus, b 1964;
Marianne Laura, b 1970.
Captain McCausland, an officer in the Ulster Defence Regiment, became the first soldier to be murdered by the Official IRA, in 1972.

DRENAGH, near Limavady, is the finest demesne in County Londonderry and one of the noblest country houses in Ulster.

Drenagh House, formerly known as Fruithill, was inherited by Colonel Robert McCausland, agent of the Rt Hon William "Speaker" Conolly, who had purchased the estate from the Phillips family.

Colonel McCausland erected the first house a few hundred yards south-east of the present mansion, overlooking the Glen Plantation.

The original house was extended in 1796, and was said to have had a fine demesne with well laid out walks and plantations.

The walled garden of that period is still retained along with one barn and a gardener’s house.

The house had a different avenue approach from the old Coleraine Road and this can still be discerned from early maps.

Before the old house was abandoned, a new avenue approach was made to the house from the new Coleraine Road (now Broad Road).

During this period (ca 1830) W Hargrave was commissioned to consider designs for a new house which was three storeys with canted bays.

However, before these plans could materialise into buildings, both McCausland and Hargrave died and the present gate lodge, known as Logan’s Lodge, or the east lodge of ca 1830, is all that was built of Hargrave’s design.

Charles Lanyon, who arrived in County Antrim as surveyor in 1836, was commissioned to prepare designs for house, offices and outhouses; and these appear to have reached fruition about 1840.

At the same time, the west avenue approach was changed and the west lodge was built to Lanyon’s specifications.

Pleasant gardens were extended in the Glen, with a viewing platform having impressive niche and fountain below and beyond a pool and parterre.

Nothing remains of the former house.

Today Drenagh demesne extends to about 1,000 acres.

It comprises two storeys, using an agreeable pinkish sandstone ashlar.

There is a five-bay entrance front, with a recessed central bay and a single-storey Ionic portico whose outer columns are coupled.

The adjoining front is of six bays, with a pedimented breakfront which is emphasized by three massive pilasters supporting the pediment.

There is a lower service wing at the side; a balustraded parapet round the roof and on the portico.

There is a magnificent single-storey, top-lit central hall with screens of fluted Corinthian columns.

An elegant double staircase, with exquisite cast-iron balusters, rises from behind one of the screens.

There are also rich plasterwork ceilings in the hall, over the staircase and in the drawing-room.

The morning-room and dining-room have more modest ceilings.

The outbuildings are extensive.

A vista through the gap in the trees beyond the entrance front boasts an idyllic landscape far below.

Most notable is the Chinese Garden, with its circular "moon gate", developed by the Lady Margaret McCausland in the 1960s.

The demesne itself is part-walled and dates from the early 18th century.

There are fine woodland, parkland and shelter belt trees.

The ground within the demesne is undulating, descending to the Castle River running to the south of the house and to the Curly River to the north and east.

Neither river is used as an ornamental feature.

An unusual Italianate high balustraded terrace, with a commanding view point, formerly looked over an extensive 19th century Italian Garden, which is now overgrown.

The vista at the present time overlooks what has become dense woodland, including exotics and rhododendrons.

A water garden in the foreground includes a handsome stone pond built in the 1960s to the designs of Frances Rhodes.

The 'Moon Garden' was also designed by Frances Rhodes in 1968.

It is an enclosed area influenced by both Chinese and Arts and Crafts garden design, which remains fully planted up.

It incorporates pre-1830s office buildings.

Outside is the ‘Orbit Garden’, also by Rhodes, planted with shrubs, trees and herbaceous material.

An area south east of and adjacent to the house had a late 20th century ornamental garden, which is now grassed.

The walled garden is used for nursery planting.

It was enlarged after the present house was built. Logan’s Lodge, 1830 by Hargrave, pre-dates the present house.

The main entrance gate lodge, gates and screen are ca 1840 by Lanyon.

Streeve, the dower house, is within the demesne and has its own garden.

Images courtesy of Conolly McCausland.   First published in February, 2010.

Monday, 30 March 2020

Coollattin Park


In 1565, HUGH FITZWILLIAM (c1534-c1576), of Emley, Sprotbrough, and Haddlesey, Yorkshire, collected the records of his family, and from these records the following particulars are partly deduced:

SIR WILLIAM FITZ GODRIC, cousin to EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, left a son and heir,

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAMwho, being ambassador at the court of WILLIAM, Duke of Normandy, attended that prince in his victorious expedition against England, as marshal of the army, in 1066; and for his valour at the battle of Hastings, THE CONQUEROR presented him with a scarf from his own arm.

This Sir William was father of

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM, Knight, who wedded Eleanor, daughter and heiress of Sir John Emley, of Emley and Sprotbrough, by which marriage the Fitzwilliams obtained the lordships of Emley and Sprotbrough, which continued with them until the reign of HENRY VIII, when those lordships were carried, by co-heirs, into the families of Suthill and Copley.

Sir William was succeeded by his son,

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM, Lord of Emley and Sprotbrough, living in 1117, as appears from a grant made by him of a piece of the wood in Emley to the monks of Byland.

To this grant, in a round seal, is represented a man on horseback, completely armed and circumscribed S. Willmi Filij Willmi Dni de Emmalaia; and on the reverse, the arms of FITZWILLIAM, viz. Lozenge.

This Sir William, or one of his descendants, caused a cross to be set up in the high street of Sprotbrough; which cross was pulled down in 1520.

From Sir William we pass to his descendant,

SIR JOHN FITZWILLIAM, who founded, in 1372, the Chantry of St Edward in the church of Sprotbrough; and having married Elizabeth, daughter of William de Clinton, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, had three sons, the eldest of whom,

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM, married Maud, daughter of Ralph, 3rd Lord Cromwell, of Tattershall, and co-heir of the Lord Treasurer Cromwell, by whom he had one son and two daughters.

He was succeeded by his son,

SIR JOHN FITZWILLIAM, who wedded Eleanor, daughter of Sir Henry Green, of Drayton, and had six sons.

The youngest son,

JOHN FITZWILLIAM, of Milton Hall and Greens Norton, in Northamptonshire, espoused Eleanor, daughter of William Villiers, of Brooksby, Leicestershire, by whom he had three sons and two daughters, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

THE RT HON SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM (c1460-1534), Knight, of Milton and Gaynes Park, Essex, and also of the city of London, of which he was sheriff in 1506.

Sir William married firstly, Anne, daughter of Sir John Hawes, Knight, of the city of London, and had,
WILLIAM, his heir;
Elizabeth; Anne.
He wedded secondly, Mildred, daughter of Richard Sackville, of Withyham, Sussex, and had three sons and two daughters,
Eleanor; Mary.
Sir William was succeeded by his eldest son,

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM, Knight, who espoused Anne, daughter of Sir Richard Sapcote, of Elton, Huntingdonshire; and was succeeded by his son and heir,

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM (1526-99), Lord Deputy of Ireland and Lord Justice, who wedded Anne, daughter of Sir William Sydney, and aunt of the 1st Earl of Leicester, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his heir;
Mary; Philippa; Margaret.
Sir William was succeeded by his son,

SIR WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM, Knight, of Milton and Gaynes Park Hall, who was elevated to the peerage, in 1620, in the dignity of Baron Fitzwilliam, of Lifford, County Donegal.

His lordship wedded Catherine, daughter of William Hyde, of Denchworth, Berkshire; and dying in 1644, was succeeded by his elder son,

WILLIAM, 2nd Baron (c1609-58), who espoused, in 1638, Jane, daughter and co-heir of Alderman Hugh Perry, of London, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his heir;
Jane, m Sir Christopher Wren, the celebrated architect.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

WILLIAM, 3rd Baron (1643-1719), who was advanced, in 1716, to the dignities of Viscount Milton, County Westmeath, and EARL FITZWILLIAM, of County Tyrone.

His lordship married Anne, daughter and sole heir of Edmund Cremor, of West Winch, Norfolk, by whom he had four sons and six daughters.

He was succeeded by his third, but eldest surviving son,

JOHN, 2nd Earl (1681-1728), who wedded Anne, daughter and sole heir of John Stringer, of Sutton-cum-Lound, Nottinghamshire, and left, with three daughters, a son and successor,

WILLIAM, 3rd Earl (1719-56), then a minor, who was, in 1742, enrolled amongst the peers of Great Britain, by GEORGE II, by the style and title of Lord Fitzwilliam, Baron Milton, in Northamptonshire.

His lordship was advanced, in 1746, to the dignities of Viscount Milton and EARL FITZWILLIAM, in the same county.

He espoused, in 1744, the Lady Anne Watson-Wentworth, eldest daughter of Thomas, Marquess of Rockingham, and sister and co-heir of Charles, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, by whom he had issue,
WILLIAM, his successor;
Charlotte; Frances Henrietta.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

WILLIAM, 4th Earl (1748-1833), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for a very short period, in 1795, who married firstly, in 1770, the Lady Charlotte Ponsonby, second daughter of William, 2nd Earl of Bessborough, by whom he had an only child, CHARLES WILLIAM WENTWORTH, his heir.
Charles William, 5th Earl (1786-1857);
William Charles, Viscount Milton (1812-35);
William Thomas Spencer, 6th Earl (1815-1902);
William, Viscount Milton (1839-77);
William Charles de Meuron, 7th Earl (1872-1943);
(William Henry Lawrence) Peter, 8th Earl (1910-48);
Eric Spencer, 9th Earl (1883-1952);
William Thomas George, 10th Earl (1904-79). 
The titles expired following the decease of the 10th and last Earl.

COOLLATTIN PARK, is near Shillelagh in County Wicklow.

The history of the Wentworth/Fitzwilliam families has been well documented, but what is less well known is the influence they had on the history of the kingdom of Ireland.

As well as the family seat of Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire (where they owned 22,000 acres in 1870), the Earls Fitzwilliam also resided at Malton House (later Coollattin House) in County Wicklow, from where they managed their vast estate.

Coollattin is now a golf club.

The 4th Earl  built Coollattin House (it was originally called Malton, one of his grandfather’s titles as Earl of Malton). 

The house was designed by the leading architect John Carr, who was also responsible for the grandiose “stable block” at Wentworth Woodhouse as well as the Keppel’s Column and Mausoleum monuments near Wentworth.

The building was started around 1794 but before completion it was burned down in a rebellion in 1798 (along with 160 other houses in the nearby village of Carnew and several Catholic churches).

Work resumed again in 1800 and the house was completed in 1807.

As well as rebuilding their house and the village, the Fitzwilliams contributed to the repairs of the Catholic churches and gave land for other churches (whilst other landlords would not even allow a Catholic church on their estate).

Throughout the family’s time in Ireland they did not take sides in the various Irish struggles through the centuries, and perhaps as a consequence their house was left untouched in the last dash for independence.

As well as undertaking building and agricultural projects, the 4th Earl was also the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for a short time in 1795.

In 2003, The Times newspaper wrote: 

When the 10th and last Earl died in 1979 the remnants of the huge Coollattin estate, for centuries the Irish seat of the Earls Fitzwilliam, was sold by the last Earl’s widow, Lady Juliet De Chairoff, and in the following years, it was broken up and sold on bit by bit.

In 1983, the sprawling Coollattin House, with its vast lands attached, was resold for €128,000. 
When the farm land value was removed, this amounted to just £8,000 for the house itself — which, with its 120-plus rooms, is still among the largest private houses in the country. 
In the same year the average price of a standard new home in Dublin was more than four times that, at £35,000.

In living memory, the once-grand Coollattin estate had spanned 88,000 acres, had 20,000 tenants and comprised one quarter of Co Wicklow. 
There has long been a rumour that the estate harboured a vast tunnel used by inhabitants of the house to escape to the lodge.

The estate began falling apart in 1948 when the last earl, Peter Fitzwilliam, was killed in a plane crash with JFK’s sister, Kathleen (Kick) Kennedy, with whom, it was speculated, he had been having an affair.

His estate tenants genuinely grieved. 
The Fitzwilliams had a history of being among the most liberal landlords in Ireland. 
They had paid tenants more, invested in their education and had worked hard to ensure that the built environment in their towns was above average.

When the Great Famine came, the Fitzwilliam family were at least decent enough to ship their excess tenants to America rather than simply turn them off the land as many landlords did. 
Thousands were sent abroad to start new lives in this manner.

Perhaps this was the reason Coollattin House survived the great burning sprees that erupted through and after the war of independence, when working classes took their revenge on the less benevolent owners of big house.
Former seats ~ Coollattin Park, County Wicklow; Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire; Milton Hall, Cambridgeshire.

Former town residence ~ 4 Grosvenor Square, London.

First published in July, 2011. 

William Barnard

THE RIGHT REV DR WILLIAM BARNARD (1697-1768), younger son of John Barnard, of the Middle Temple, London, and Clapham, Surrey, married Anne Stone, sister of the Archbishop of Armagh, and had issue,
THOMAS, his heir;
Henry (Rev Dr).
Dr Barnard, Vicar of St Bride's, Fleet Street, London, 1729, Prebendary of Westminster, 1732, was appointed Dean of Rochester, 1743, and was consecrated Lord Bishop of Raphoe, 1744, and from thence translated to the bishopric of Derry, 1747.

His lordship was succeeded by his elder son,

THE RIGHT REV DR THOMAS BARNARD (1726-1806), who wedded, in 1758, Anne, daughter of William Browne, and had issue, an only child,
Dr Barnard, Vicar of Maghera, 1751-60, Archdeacon of Derry, 1761-9, Dean of Derry, 1769-80, was consecrated Lord Bishop of Killaloe and Kilfenora, 1780, and thence translated to the bishopric of Limerick, 1794, until his death in 1806.

His only son,

ANDREW BARNARD (c1765-1807), Secretary to the Colony of Cape of Good Hope, espoused, in 1793, the Lady Anne Lindsay, daughter of James, 5th Earl of Balcarres, though the marriage was without issue.


Bishop (William) Barnard was buried in the Islip chapel in Westminster Abbey.

A modern stone for him reads:WILLIAM BISHOP OF DERRY 1768.

His white marble memorial tablet is now in the Abbey triforium.

This was originally in a niche above the entry to the chapel of Our Lady of Pew, next door to the Islip chapel, but was removed in the 1930s.

The Latin inscription can be translated:
Here awaits a blessed resurrection the Right Reverend Father in Christ William Barnard, DD, first a pupil of this Collegiate Church, then Prebendary, afterward Dean of Rochester, thence elevated to Bishoprics in Ireland, of Raphoe in 1744, of Derry in 1747, by King George II. 
How great a benevolence he exercised in relieving the poor, in repairing churches, in setting up endowments, that diocese (over which he presided for more than twenty years) will long be aware and acknowledge. 
Returning to England for reasons of ill health, he died in London 10th Jan. 1768 aged 72.
Bishop Barnard was born in Clapham, south London, a son of lawyer John Barnard and his wife Isabella.

After attending Westminster School he went to Trinity College Cambridge.

He then became Rector of Esher in Surrey and chaplain to the Duke of Newcastle.

Later he was chaplain to the King and vicar of St Bride's, Fleet Street.

On October 4th 1732 he was made a prebendary of Westminster and his other preferments followed.

He married Anne Stone, daughter of an eminent London banker and sister of the Archbishop of Armagh.

Bishop Barnard's great-grandson was General Sir Henry William Barnard KCB, son of the Rev William Barnard, Rector of Water Stratford, Buckinghamshire.

The Bishop was possibly related to Sir John Barnard (c1685-1764), of Mincing Lane, London, and Clapham, Surrey, Lord Mayor of London, 1737-8.

Sunday, 29 March 2020

1st Baron Lurgan


SIR WILLIAM BROWNLOW (1591-1660), of Brownlow's-derry, County Armagh, the first of the family who settled in Ulster, was born at Epworth, Derbyshire.

The said gentleman received the honour of knighthood in 1622, from Henry, Viscount Falkland, Lord Deputy of Ireland.

In 1629, he received a patent and grant of lands in County Armagh.

Sir William left his property to his grandson (the son of his daughter, Letitia Chamberlain),

ARTHUR CHAMBERLAIN (1645-1711), High Sheriff of County Armagh, 1668-9, MP for Armagh County, 1689-1711, who, assuming the surname and arms of BROWNLOW, wedded, about 1677, Jane, daughter of Sir Standish Hartstonge Bt, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his heir;
Anne, m Matthew Forde;
Lettice, m Robert Cope.
Mr Brownlow was succeeded by his only son,

WILLIAM BROWNLOW (1683-1739), MP for Armagh County, 1711-39, who married, in 1712, the Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of James, 6th Earl of Abercorn, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his heir;
Jane, died unmarried;
Elizabeth, m to John, Lord Knapton;
Anne; Mary; Isabella.
Mr Brownlow was succeeded by his eldest son,

THE RT HON WILLIAM BROWNLOW (1726-94), of Lurgan, MP for Armagh County, 1753-94, who married firstly, in 1754, Judith Letitia, eldest daughter of the Very Rev Charles Meredyth, Dean of Ardfert, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his heir;
CHARLES, heir to his brother.
He wedded secondly, in 1765, Catherine, daughter of Roger Hall, of Mount Hall, County Down, and had further issue,
James (1772-1832);
Francis (Rev), b 1779; m Catherine, 6th daughter of 8th Earl of Meath;
Catherine, m, in 1783, M Forde, of Seaforde;
Isabella, m, in 1796, Richard, 4th Viscount Powerscourt;
Elizabeth, m, in 1791, John, 4th Earl of Darnley;
Mary Anne, died unmarried 1791;
Frances Letitia, m, in 1800, John, 2nd Viscount de Vesci;
Selina; Louisa.
Mr Brownlow was succeeded by his eldest son,

WILLIAM BROWNLOW, who dsp 1815, and was succeeded by his brother,

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL CHARLES BROWNLOW (1757-1822), of Lurgan, who wedded, in 1785, Caroline, daughter and co-heir of Benjamin Ashe, of Bath, and had issue,
William, a military officer, killed in Spain, 1813;
CHARLES, of whom we treat;
John (Rev), b 1798;
Frederick, b 1800; army major;
George, b 1805; East India Company;
Henry, b 1807; East India Company;
Isabella, m, in 1818, R Macneill, of Barra;
Anna, m, in 1821, Col Maxwell Close, of Drumbanagher;
Mary, m, in 1822, Rev John F Close.
Colonel Brownlow was succeeded by his eldest son,

THE RT HON CHARLES BROWNLOW (1795-1847), of Lurgan, MP for County Armagh, 1818-32, who married firstly, in 1822, the Lady Mary Bligh, second daughter of John, 4th Earl of Darnley, by whom he had a daughter, Mary Elizabeth.

He wedded secondly, in 1828, Jane, fourth daughter of Roderick Macneill, of Barra, Inverness-shire, and had further issue,
CHARLES, his successor;
Clara Anne Jane.
Mr Brownlow was elevated to the peerage, in 1839, in the dignity of of BARON LURGAN, of Lurgan, County Armagh.

His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

CHARLES, 2nd Baron (1831-82), KP, of Lurgan, Knight of St Patrick, who espoused, in 1853, Emily Anne, fourth daughter of John, 3rd Baron Kilmaine, and had issue,
WILLIAM, his successor;
John Roderick;
Francis Cecil, father of 5th Baron;
Mary Emily Jane; Clara Agnes; Louisa Helene; Isabella Anna;
Clementina Georgiana; Emmeline Harriet Annette.
His lordship, Lord-Lieutenant of County Armagh, 1864-82, was succeeded by his eldest son,

WILLIAM, 3rd Baron (1858-1937), KCVO, of Lurgan, State Steward to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1895-1905, who married, in 1893, the Lady Emily Julia Cadogan, eldest daughter of George, 5th Earl Cadogan, and had issue, an only child, 

WILLIAM GEORGE EDWARD, 4th Baron (1902-84), who wedded, in 1979, (Florence) May Cooper, widow of Eric Cooper, of Johnannesburg, South Africa, and daughter of Louis Francis Squire Webster, of Johannesburg.

His lordship died without issue, when the title reverted to his cousin,


The title expired following the death of the 5th Baron in 1991.


UNDER the Plantation of Ulster, John Brownlow, of Nottingham, offered himself as an undertaker of land at Oneilland, County Armagh.
Brownlow stated Nottingham as his place of origin, his family's native city and where his father had served as Mayor; but he himself had actually been living in Epworth, Lincolnshire, and had only returned to Nottingham on his father's death to claim his inheritance.
He was granted the 'middle proportion' of Doughcoron in the barony of Oneilland by patent from JAMES I in 1610.

Doughcoron contained 1,500 acres and included many townlands.

In 1610, John Brownlow's son William was granted 1,000 acres by James I, the proportion of Ballynemony.

This land also lay on the southern shore of Lough Neagh, adjacent to his father's land, and stretched from the upper Bann eastward to Doughcoron.

With the death of John Brownlow, his son, William inherited his father's property; and in 1622 William was knighted by Lord Falkland, the lord deputy of Ireland.

The existing Brownlow estate was not only consolidating and prospering but also being extended, for on the death of Sir William Brownlow in 1660, he was succeeded by his grandson, Arthur Chamberlain, eldest son of Lettice Brownlow. 

Arthur Chamberlain assumed the surname of Brownlow as directed in the will of his grandfather Sir William Brownlow and resided in Brownlow's-derry.

Arthur Brownlow, alias Chamberlain, was a prudent manager and accumulated a considerable amount of money which he invested in other lands, chiefly in County Armagh were he acquired the manor of Richmount and thus became one of the largest property owners in the county.

Meanwhile throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the County Armagh Brownlow estate in the manors of Brownlowsderry and Richmound continued to prosper and with it the Brownlows, while Lurgan continued to grow as a town.

However, the changing political situation in Ireland, especially in regard to the land question, and the introduction of the Land Acts, meant the end of the great estate.

This, coupled with family financial crisis, forced the Brownlow family to sell off most of their remaining estate, including Brownlow House, in 1893. 

They moved to London, although maintaining their contact and links with the town and people of Lurgan.

The barony of Lurgan was created in 1839 for Charles Brownlow, MP for County Armagh.

His son, the 2nd Baron, joined the Liberal Party and became a government whip in the Upper House; and he was appointed a Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick (KP) in 1864.

The 2nd Lord Lurgan owned the celebrated greyhound, Master McGrath; and his brother-in-law was Mr Maxwell Close whose home, incidentally, was Drumbanagher House, built to the design of William Playfair who also designed Brownlow House.

The barony expired in 1991, following the death of the 5th Baron.

Stained Glass Window at Brownlow House

BROWNLOW HOUSE, near Lurgan, County Armagh, is a large Elizabethan-Revival mansion, built by William Playfair about 1836.

This large mansion is built of a honey-coloured stone, with numerous gables and lofty finials; abundant tall chimney-pots; oriels crowned with strap-work; and a tower with a dome and lantern.

The walls of three main reception rooms are decorated with panels painted to look like verd-antique; the ceilings grained to resemble various woods.

The windows overlooking the great staircase boast heraldic stained glass.

Brownlow House was sold by the Lurgan family to the Orange Order in 1903.

The surrounding parkland is the largest public park in Northern Ireland

The Brownlow Papers are held by the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland.

By 1883, the Brownlow estate was valued at £20,589 a year (£1.8 million today).

This consisted of the manors of Brownlowsderry and Richmount.

The memory of the Lurgan family lives on, in the form of a charitable trust.

First published in November, 2009.

Saturday, 28 March 2020

White's Tavern

WHITE'S TAVERN, Winecellar Entry, Belfast, is a three-storey rendered public house of ca 1790 facing onto the courtyard of Winecellar Entry.

The style is urban vernacular, though the fenestration is fairly regular.

The roof is covered with Bangor Blue slates, with the ridge parallel to Lombard Street; eaves with ogee gutter.

the front elevation is rendered and painted with slight texture; shallow frames surround most windows, and projecting cills.

Windows are contemporary, typically two-over-two, quite regularly spaced in six bays.

the ground floor is more irregular, with four windows close together, one much smaller window and three doors.

Modern ornamental iron grilles protect the windows at ground and first floor levels

Quoin-stones are at each end of the terrace.

The building is landlocked, being built against on three sides.

THE STUMP of a bollard of some antiquity survives in Winecellar Entry, at the corner of the courtyard near White's Tavern. Marcus Patton suggests that it might be what remains of an old cannon.
White's claims to be Belfast's oldest tavern.

The first building on the current site is believed to have been established as early as 1630, according to popular tradition.

It is thought that the original structure on the site was erected in 1630 by Thomas Kane.

There is, however, no documentary evidence that accurately supports this build date.

The 1685 map of Belfast records that Winecellar Entry did not even exist in the mid-17th century.
The map shows that the area between High Street, Bridge Street and Waring Street was utilised as yard and garden space, whilst there were no standalone buildings depicted within the area which later became Winecellar Entry.
Another theory suggests that the Bateson family established a wine and spirit store in the vicinity during the late-1600s.

The current building does not date from the mid-17th century, but actually dates from the late-18th century, when the previous structure was demolished and reconstructed by Valentine Jones.

Mr Jones, a wine merchant, constructed "two good and substantial messuages or tenements of brick and lime, three stories high".

Marcus Patton OBE states that Winecellar Entry was known in 1715 as 'Bigart's Alley'.

I wonder if this entry was more likely to have been named after James Bigger, a prominent merchant in Belfast at the time.

The alley was renamed Winecellar Entry by the early-19th century due to the number of winecellars that had been established along the alley.

During the early-19th century the wine and spirit store changed hands with great frequency.

In 1803, the property came into the possession of James Napier, and was later controlled by William Park & Co.

John Kane was the sole wine merchant recorded in 1824; however, by the 1830s the premises were occupied by Messrs John Murphy & Co.

Winecellar Entry ca 1845

By 1852, the property was occupied by Hugh White and his trading partner, James Neil.

In that year the site was recorded as "Neil & White - Wholesale Wine and Spirit Merchants".

Neil and White continued to work in partnership until at least the early-1860s.

James Neil left the partnership between 1861-68, when Hugh White took over the wine and spirit stores, giving the building its current name, although the establishment was then known as Hugh White & Co.

Mr White died in 1882; however, the licensed stores continued to operate under his full name for a century until the 1960s.

Since the early-19th century, the building on Winecellar Entry was not referred to as a public house but operated as a licensed wholesale store.

A section of the building operated as The Temperance Hotel in the 1870s.
It is not known precisely when Hugh White's wine and spirit store was converted into a public house; however, in 1900 the building included a public house which was open for six days of the week, but was required to close early.
Mr White continued to sell wine and spirits wholesale.

The premises were renamed White's Tavern in 1962, when the building was renovated.

White's Tavern underwent a major restoration and heavy redecoration in the 1980s, when
"...the style of both the exterior and the interior [was] designed to reflect the rich heritage of one of Belfast's oldest drinks emporiums."
Sir Charles Brett, writing in 1985, criticised the renovation, noting that
until quite recently it combined the picturesque and the practical to perfection with its heavy timbered bays, barred windows and roof hoist. Unfortunately it has recently been disastrously restored in "Ye Olde" style; the outside boasts a poker-work inn-sign, the interior is replete with arty brass and electric bulbs in bogus lanterns.
The Tavern was acquired by the owners of The Merchant Hotel ca 2013.

In 2019 the bar was acquired by the Clover Group.

The exterior of the building affords little of great interest today, architecturally or aesthetically.

First published in February, 2015.

Friday, 27 March 2020

Ballyedmond Castle


Ballyedmond Castle, near Rostrevor, is the County Down residence of the Lady Ballyedmond.

The demesne lies within the Mourne Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

An earlier house is shown on the site on Taylor and Skinner’s map of 1777.

This house was built by a Mr Pollock and was owned in 1806 by Mrs Hamilton when her niece, Maria Edgeworth, visited it.

It was described in an 1836 Ordnance Survey Memoir as a “good plain two storey house with additions and in good order”, the residence of Alexander Stewart.

Ballyedmond Castle Hotel

It is believed by Major Reside that this house was demolished in 1848 and that Stewart built the current house the following year.

The architect was reputedly Sir Charles Lanyon, although no documentary evidence has been found to substantiate this claim.

However some of the details, e.g. tower, turret, corbel heads and window openings, are very similar to those of the Lanyon building at Queen’s University, Belfast, which is contemporary.

It is shown in its present form (without ballroom wing) on an 1859 map.

Ballyedmond House was sold to Mr Kelly Patterson ca 1880, who subsequently sold it to a Mr Douglas.

It was raided in the 1920s by Irish republicans searching for concealed UVF guns.

It is said that the garden terraces were constructed with compensation money the family was awarded for damage incurred to floors during the IRA raid.

The house was occupied during the 2nd World War by the United States Air Force, who constructed a camp (now gone) in the demesne.

In 1966 it was sold to Harris Hotels Ltd and converted into a ten-bedroom hotel at a cost of about £100,000 (£1.6 million in today's money).

The hotel was fire-bombed in a terrorist attack in 1979.

It remained a gutted shell until it was purchased by Dr Edward Haughey in the mid-80s.

Dr Haughey was created a life peer in 2004, as BARON BALLYEDMOND, of Mourne, County Down.

Restoration on the present mansion began about 1987.

In the past (before the construction of the present Killowen Road), the demesne extended further north than it does today and was bounded by the Killowen Old Road.

The original drive still remains between the Killowen Road (opposite the present front gates) and the Killowen Old Road entrance.

No architect was employed in the 1987 refurbishment; the most recent plans were executed by local craftsmen.

The grand staircase from Robinson & Cleaver’s Belfast department store dates from 1886-8 and was built by Robinson & Son of York Street, Belfast, to designs by Young and Mackenzie.

The original house (above) was a ca 1855 Victorian Tudor-Baronial mansion, with pointed gables, mullioned windows; a battlemented tower and conical-roofed turret.

Two gate lodges, since demolished, pre-dated the house and were built for Alexander Stewart.

In the 1870s the demesne extended to 347 acres.

One advertisement boasted of the former hotel as being

set amid acres of private parkland and terraced gardens with magnificent views over Carlingford Lough ... is one of the most luxurious in Northern Ireland; beautifully appointed apartments all with private bathroom, telephone, television and radio offer a high standard of comfort to the most discerning guest. Finest cuisine and wines.
The much altered mid-19th century mansion was in a splendid position between the Mourne Mountains and Carlingford Lough.

An even earlier house, Fort Hamilton, was visited and commented on by Maria Edgeworth in 1806.

According to the report in the Ordnance Survey Memoirs of 1836, the garden was "neat".

The surrounding 200 acre demesne had mature deciduous shelter and parkland trees and later conifer additions, included when the park was extended to the west.

The site is exposed to winds coming across the lough but otherwise the climate is mild.

THE GARDENS today have undergone extensive landscaping since 1988, on a 19th century framework.

Terraces on the south side of the house are linked by steps that lead to features at a lower level, where the lay-out is arranged in compartments on a circular theme.

The Lord and Lady Ballyedmond at Ballyedmond Castle

The north side of the present residence has balustrading at the carriage drive and ornamental planting since the 1980s.

The three-sided walled garden is cultivated, with a glasshouse.

The two aforesaid pre-1834 gate lodges, which belonged to the earlier house, have gone.

First published in July, 2011.

1st Baron De La Warr

The founder of this family,

SIR THOMAS WEST, Knight, lived in the reign of EDWARD II, and was in high favour with that monarch and his successor.

He married Eleanor, daughter and heiress of Sir John de Cantilupe, of Hempston Cantilupe, Devon, by whom he obtained the manor of Snitterfield, in Warwickshire.

Sir Thomas was subsequently summoned to parliament as Baron West in 1342, and participated in the wars of EDWARD III.

He died in 1342, and was succeeded by his son,

THOMAS, 2nd Baron, who was not summoned to parliament, though served at Crécy in 1346.

His son,

THOMAS, 3rd Baron, was summoned to parliament in 1402; and dying three years later, in 1405, was succeeded by his son, 

THOMAS, 4TH BARON, who took a distinguished part in the French wars of HENRY V.

Dying without issue, in 1415, he was succeeded by his brother, 

REGINALD, 5TH BARON, who, in the reign of HENRY VI, on the death of Thomas, Lord la Warr, his uncle, had livery of the lands of his mother's inheritance, and was summoned to parliament as 6th Baron De La Warr, on the death of his uncle in 1426.

Dying in 1451, he was succeeded by his son,

RICHARD, 7th Baron, a staunch supporter of the house of LANCASTER in the war of the Roses.

Following his decease in 1497, he was succeeded by his son,

THOMAS, 8th Baron (c1457-1525), KG.

His lordship's lineal descendant, 

WILLIAM WEST, having served in the English army, at the siege of St Quintin, in Picardy, was knighted at Hampton Court in 1568; and created, at the same time, Baron De La Warr (2nd creation).

He had also, by act of parliament, a full restitution in blood. His only son, 

THOMAS, 2nd Baron, was succeeded by his son, 

THOMAS, 3rd Baron (1577-1618), Governor and Captain-general of Virginia.


THE STATE of Delaware takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr.
In the United States, Thomas West, 3rd (or 12th) Baron, is often named in history books simply as Lord Delaware. He served as governor of the Jamestown Colony, and the Delaware Bay was named after him.
The state of Delaware, Delaware River and Delaware Indians were so called after the bay, and thus ultimately derive their names from the barony. Many other US counties, townships and the like derive their names directly or indirectly from this connection.
His lordship died, in 1618, at Virginia and was succeed in the title by his son, 

HENRY, 4th Baron; whose grandson,

JOHN, 6th Baron, one of the tellers of the exchequer, and afterwards treasurer of the excise, married and was succeeded by his only son,

JOHN, 7th Baron, KB, a general in the Army, and Governor of Guernsey.

His lordship marred twice, firstly to Lady Charlotte, daughter of the Earl of Clancarty.

In 1761 this nobleman was created Viscount Cantelupe and EARL DE LA WARR.

He died in 1766 and was succeeded by his eldest son,

JOHN, 2nd Earl, was an officer of high rank in the army and appointed, in 1766, Master of the Horse to The Queen.


William Herbrand [Sackville], 11th Earl De La Warr, is seated at Buckhurst Park, Withyham, Sussex.

Former town residence ~ 14 Bourne Street, London.
First published in June, 2012.   Coat-of-arms courtesy of European Heraldry.