Tuesday, 2 June 2020

House of de Ros


The ancestor of this family, PETER, having, in the reign of HENRY I, assumed his surname from the lordship of Ros, in Holderness, where he then resided, became

PETER DE ROS, or ROOS. This feudal baron married Adeline, one of the sisters and co-heirs of the famous Walter Espec, and was succeeded at his decease by his son,

ROBERT DE ROS, who, during the reign of HENRY II, paid a thousand marks of silver to His Majesty for livery of the lands inherited by his mother from her brother, Walter Espec.

This Robert was a munificent benefactor to the knights templars.

His son,  

EVERARD DE ROS, a minor, and in ward to Ranulf de Glanvill. He married Rose Trusbut, of Wartre, in Holderness, and had two sons.

This gentleman must have been a very considerable personage at the period in which he lived, for we find him, in 1176, paying the then very large sum of £526 as a fine for his lands; and in four years subsequently £100 more to have possession of those which the Earl of Albemarle held.

This Everard died about 1186, and was succeeded by his son, 

SIR ROBERT DE ROS, or de Roos, called Furfan, who, in the reign of RICHARD I, paid a thousand marks fine to the crown for livery of his lands.

In the reign of KING JOHN, that monarch gave him the whole barony of his great-grandmother’s father, Walter Espec, to enjoy in as large and ample a manner as long as he ever held it.

Soon after which he was deputed, with the Bishop of Durham, and other great men, to escort the King of Scotland into England.

About the fourteenth year of KING JOHN’s reign, Robert de Ros assumed the habit of a monk, whereupon the custody of all his lands, viz. Wark Castle, Northumberland, with his whole barony, was committed to Philip de Ulcote; but he did not remain long as a recluse.

This feudal lord was the founder of  Helmsley Castle, otherwise Hamlake, in Yorkshire; and Wark Castle, in Northumberland.

He wedded Isabella, daughter of WILLIAM The Lion, King of Scotland, and had issue,
WILLIAM, of Helmsley, of whom presently;
Robert, of Wark;
Having assumed the habit of the Knights Templars, Robert de Ros died in 1227, and was buried at London, at the Temple Church.

His eldest son's eldest son,

ROBERT DE ROS, taking an active part against the King, was one of the chief barons, who, after the battle of Lewes, in 1264, where HENRY III and his son Prince Edward became prisoners, was summoned to the parliament, which was called by the barons in the King's name, in 1264, as BARON DE ROS.

His lordship espoused Isabel, the great heiress of William d'Aubigny, Lord of Belvoir, in Leicestershire; and dying in 1285, was succeeded by his eldest son, 

WILLIAM, 1st Baron, who was an unsuccessful competitor for the crown of Scotland in 1292, through his grandmother Isabella, daughter of William the Lion, King of Scotland.

In 1296, he obtained from EDWARD I a grant of Wark Castle, upon its forfeiture by the treason of his kinsman, Robert de Ros.

His lordship wedded Maud, daughter and co-heir of John de Vaux, and was succeeded, in 1316, by his elder son, 

WILLIAM, 2nd Baron, who married Margery, eldest sister and co-heir of Giles, Lord Badlesmere, of Leeds Castle, in Kent.

This nobleman was, during the reign of  EDWARD II, one of the commissioners appointed to negotiate peace with Robert Bruce, King of Scotland.

His lordship died in 1343, and was succeeded by his elder son,

WILLIAM, 3rd Baron, had the glory of leading the 2nd Division of the English army at the celebrated battle of Crécy.

He married Margaret, daughter of Ralph Neville; and dying in the Holy Land without an heir in 1352, the family honours devolved upon his brother, 

THOMAS, 4th Baron, who wedded Beatrice, widow of Maurice Fitzmaurice, Earl of Desmond, and daughter of Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford.

His lordship died in 1383, was succeeded by his eldest son,

JOHN, 5th Baron, KB, who was in the naval expedition during the reign of RICHARD II, under Richard, Earl of Arundel.

Dying, during pilgrimage to Jerusalem, at Paphos, Cyprus, and leaving no issue, he was succeeded by his brother,

WILLIAM, 6th Baron, KG; who was constituted, by HENRY IV, LORD TREASURER OF ENGLAND.

This nobleman wedded Margaret, daughter of John, 1st Baron Arundel; and dying in 1414 was succeeded by his eldest son,

JOHN, 7th Baron, who espoused Margery, daughter and heiress of Philip, 2nd Baron le Despencer, but had no issue.

He was killed in France, where he served under the Duke of Clarence, in 1421, and was succeeded by his brother,

THOMAS, 8th Baron, who married Eleanor, daughter of Richard, 13th Earl of Warwick; and dying in 1431, was succeeded by his eldest son,

THOMAS, 9th Baron, was attainted in 1464 and died in the same year.

The barony of ROS lay under the attainder  till the complete triumph of the Lancastrians, by the accession of HENRY VII, when the elder son of the late lord,

, 10th Baron, obtained an act of parliament, annulling and making entirely void, the act by which his father was attainted, and restoring to him all the estates and honours of the family.

His lordship died, in 1508, unmarried, when the barony of Ros fell into abeyance between his three sisters and co-heirs, which terminated in favour of

GEORGE MANNERS, as 11th Baron, the son and heir of Eleanor, the eldest sister, by her husband, Sir Robert Manners, knight (the two younger sisters having died without issue).

This nobleman was never summoned to parliament.

His lordship wedded Ann, only daughter and heir of Sir Thomas St Leger, knight, by Ann Plantagenet, sister of EDWARD IV.

He died in 1513, and was succeeded by his son,

THOMAS, 12th Baron, KG; who was summoned to parliament in 1515, and created EARL OF RUTLAND, in 1525, being also installed a Knight of the Garter.

His lordship died in 1543, and was succeeded by his son,

HENRY, 13th Baron and 2nd Earl of Rutland (1526-63), who was succeeded by his eldest son,

EDWARD, 14th Baron and 3rd Earl (1549-87), who died without male issue, when the earldom of Rutland reverted to his brother, and the barony of DE ROS descended to his only daughter and heir,

ELIZABETH MANNERS, 15th Baroness, who espoused William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter.

Her ladyship died in 1591, and the barony was confirmed to her son and heir,

WILLIAM CECIL, 16th Baron (1590-1618); who died, however, two years later, without male issue (his father, Lord Exeter, still living), when the barony reverted to his cousin,

FRANCIS MANNERS, 6th Earl of Rutland, as 17th Baron de Ros (1578-1632).

This nobleman had previously contested, as heir-general, and obtained on the same day as it was confirmed to his cousin, 1616, a patent, creating himself, and his heirs male, Baron Ros of Hamlake.

His lordship died, however, in 1632, without male issue, when the new barony expired, but the old one devolved upon his only daughter and heir,

KATHERINE, as 19th Baroness de Ros, who wedded George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham; and was succeeded in the barony by her eldest son,

GEORGE, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and 20th Baron de Ros (1628-87).

His Grace died without male issue, when the barony fell into abeyance between the heirs of Bridget, wife of Sir Robert Tyrwhitt Bt, and Frances, wife of Willia, Lord Willoughby, sisters of Francis, 6th Earl of Rutland.

Thus continued the line until terminated in favour of the only daughter and heir of the Hon Robert Boyle Walsingham, youngest son of Henry, 1st Earl of Shannon,

CHARLOTTE FITZGERALD (1769-1831), wife of Lord Henry FitzGerald, 4th son of James, 1st Duke of Leinster, as 21ST BARONESS DE ROS.

Her ladyship had issue (by Lord Henry, who died in 1829), her eldest son,

HENRY WILLIAM, 22nd Baron.
The heir apparent is the present holder's son, the Hon Finbar James Maxwell (b 1988). 
Seat ~ Old Court, Strangford, County Down
Former residence ~ Boyle Farm, Kent.

First published in February, 2012.   De Ros arms courtesy of European Heraldry.


Christopher Bellew said...

Lord de Ros is, as you correctly say, now the premier baron of Engand. However, from 1965 to 1983, intriguingly, this was not the case. The 27th holder of this ancient title was held by a woman - so a baroness. That made Lord Stourton the premier baron and gives me a chance to tell a story about his service in the Grenadier Guards in the Second World War. Returning from a patrol the sentry asked him to identify himself. Charles Stourton replied "Mowbray, Seagrave and Stourton" - his full titles - to which the sentry said "come forward one and be recognised".
I had a pub lunch with Charles Stourton some years ago and he was extremely good company.

Christpher Bellew said...

Gosh, I spelt Segrave incorrectly. Tim, can you correct my blunder?